Ernæringstilstand knyttet til unges præstationsevne

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Blodets indhold af jern og vitaminer hos teenagere kan have en markant virkning på de unges fysiske ydeevne, tyder ny forskning på. Det nytter med andre ord at tage en multivitamin daglig!

Tidligere undersøgelser har vist at unge menneskers kondition er faldet i løbet af de seneste 30 år. Det samme er indtagelsen af visse vigtige næringsstoffer – i det mindste marginalt. Det hævdes ligeledes, at der er en sammenhæng mellem en persons fysiske kondition og personens ernæringsstatus, selv om parametre som køn, alder, livsstil og genetiske forskelle m.m. spiller ind.

 

Eksempler på sammenhænge
For eksempel ved vi, at jern indgår i proteinet hæmoglobin i de røde blodlegemer, hvor det transporterer ilt fra lungerne ud til kroppens celler og kuldioxid retur til lungerne.
Antioxidanten C-vitamin hjælper med at reparere de skader på cellerne der kan opstå som følge af frie radikaler efter hård træning.

Det var sådanne mulige sammenhænge mellem markører for mikronærinsstoffer og de unges fysiske kondition som et spansk forskerteam ønskede at undersøge. Ud over sammenhængen mellem hæmoglobin (indikation for jernindtagelsen) og C-vitamin, undersøgte forskerne også blodets indhold af A-vitamin, betacaroten, E-vitamin, vitamin B6, folat og D-vitamin og disse stoffers mulige sammenhæng med de unges fysiske kondition.

Forskerne benyttede data fra en tidligere livsstilsundersøgelse af unge fra 10 europæiske byer (The HELENA-study). I undersøgelsen indgik 509 drenge og 580 piger med en gennemsnitlig alder på 15 år.

 

Vurdering hjerte-lungefunktion

  • Drenge: Her anvendtes mængden af hæmoglobin, A-vitamin og C-vitamin
  • Piger: Til pigerne anvendtes betacaroten og D-vitamin

Mængden af disse næringsstoffer blev knyttet til forsøgsdeltagernes maksimale iltoptagelse (VO Max) som er kroppens maksimale evne til at transportere og bruge ilt under fysisk udøvelse af stigende intensitet.

 

Vurdering af muskelfunktion

  • Drenge: Her anvendtes mængden af hæmoglobin, betacaroten, A-vitamin og E-vitamin
  • Piger: Til pigerne anvendtes betacaroten og D-vitamin

Mængden af disse næringsstoffer blev knyttet til en bedre præstation af længdespring uden tilløb.

Selv om den viste sammenhæng mellem næringsstoffer i blodet og hjerte, lunger og musklers ydeevne ikke er noget klart bevis, så peger forsøgsresultatet fra denne forskning i den retning.

 

Ref.
Garcia-Marco L, et al. Iron and vitamin status biomarkers and its association with physical fitness an adolescent: The HELENA study. J Appl Physiol 2012;113:566-73.

 

Kommentar
Ikke alle multivitamin-præparater indeholder jern, idet ikke alle mennesker har gavn af et jerntilskud. Eksempelvis mennesker med store jerndepoter i kroppen. De vil derfor ikke have gavn af ekstra jern, tværtimod. Indholdet af C-vitamin vil til gengæld fremme kroppens optagelse af jern fra kosten, men uden at skade den. Ved indtag af stigende mængder C-vitamin aftager jernabsorptionen, hvorefter jernoptagelsen standses, når kroppens behov er nået*. Med andre ord: Selv personer med højt jernindhold i kroppen har intet at frygte ved indtag af C-vitamin.

*Bendich A, Langseth L. The Health Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation: A Review. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14(2):124-36.

 

 

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