Urtica arter

Urtica arter 1.

 

Danske navne: Stor og Liden brændenælde
Engelsk navn: Common or Small Stinging Nettle
Tysk navn: Brennessel

Familie: Lamiaceae
Droge: Rod, blade

 

Beskrivelse
Urtica dioica er en flerårig plante, op til 1,5 m høj, kraftigt forgrenet rodstok med mange tynde udløbere, langstrakt‑hjerteformede blade med groft savtakket kant. Hele planten er dækket med “dun” og brændehår, som indeholder nældegiften. Urtica urens L. har de samme medicinske egenskaber som U. dioica. U. urens er en mindre, etårig plante uden “dun” og med glatte skinnede blade bortset fra brændehårene.

 

Aktive indholdsstoffer
Bladene indeholder flavonoider quercetin glykosider (isoquercetin og rutin), kaempferol og iso‑rhamnetin i blomsterne; aminer (specielt i brændehårene mindre indhold af histamin, myresyre, cholin, acetyl-cholin, og serotonin); vitaminer (specielt betakaroten, B‑og C‑vitaminer, mineraler (specielt calcium, kalium, silicium (kisel), jern og natrium) og garvestoffer.(1) Rødderne indeholder steroler (stigmasterol-4-en-3-on, stigmasterol, campesterol).(2)

 

Farmakologi
De steroide stoffer i roden (stigmast-4-en-3-on, stigmasterol og campesterol) hæmmer enzymet prostata-natrium-kalium-ATPase. Androgener aktiverer enzymsystemer i prostatavæv ved at binde sig til natrium-kalium-ATPase. Hæmning af dette enzym medfører hæmning af androgen-forårsaget cellevækst i prostata.(3) Ekstrakt af roden fremmer binding af 5-alpha-dihydrotestosteron (DHT) til sexhormon bindende globulin (SHGB),(4) hvilket medfører at der er mindre frit DHT til at påvirke prostata.

 

Kliniske forsøg
Forsøg med patienter med forstørret prostata har vist, at roden fremmer subjektive og objektive symptomer: nedsætter nykturi (vandladning om natten),(5) residalurin og hæver vandladningsvolumen,(6) og nedsætter frekvensen af vandladning både om dagen (25%) og om natten (50%).(7) Et tysk forsøg med 4550 patienter fandt, at behandling med et rodekstrakt var effektivt i 83,2% af patienter med forstørret prostata i første stadie, og i 80,4% af patienter i andet stadie.(8)

 

Egenskaber Blade: Vanddrivende, blodstillende, mildt blodsukkersænkende(1), astringerende, blodrensende, let kredsløbsstimulerende, mælkedrivende og ernærende.(2) Rødder: hæmmer cellevækst i prostata

 

Indikationer
Urtica radix:

  • Prostata
    Hæmmer nykturi, nedsætter residalurin, hæver vandladnings volumen og nedsætter frekvensen af vandladning både om dagen og om natten.

 

Urtica folia:

  • Ernæring 
    Urtica arter indeholder rimelige mængder af mineraler og vitaminer og anvendes i behandlingen af blodmangel og andre sygdomme med generel svækkelse.(2)
  • Gigt og hudsygdomme
    Urtica arter virker udrensende og mildt vanddrivende via nyrene. Øger udskillelsen af urinsyre (og muligvis også andre affaldsstoffer, specielt andre syrer). Anvendes i behandlingen af urinsyregigt og andre gigtsygdomme(1) samt hudlidelser som f.eks. eksem og filipenser. Traditionelt er Urtica arter blevet brugt udvortes i behandlingen af gigt. Gigtramte led “piskes” med den friske plante, hvorved en irritation opstår, som fjerner inflammationsstimulerende toksiner fra leddene ved at øge blodgennemstrømningen.
  • Amning
    Urtica arter stimulerer mælkeproduktionen.(2)
  • Diabetes
    Glucoquinon nedsætter blodsukkeret og anvendes i behandlingen af alderdomssukkersyge.(2)
  • Blødninger
    Urtica arter anvendes udvortes i behandlingen af blødninger, men har også ry for at hjælpe mod for kraftig menstruation.(2)
  • Ødem
    Drogens vanddrivende egenskab anvendes i behandlingen af ødem for årsaget af hjerte‑ eller veneinsufficiens. Anvendes også i behandlingen af ødem af andre årsager som f.eks. kronisk ødem efter fysisk trauma.
  • Urinvejene
    Drogens vanddrivende egenskab anvendes i behandlingen af kronisk inflammation i urinvejene, i forebyggelse af nyregrus.
  • Høfeber og nældefeber Hæmmer den allergiske reaktion.

 

Kontraindikationer
Ødem forårsaget af nyresvigt.

 

Bivirkninger
Allergiske reaktioner kan forekomme.(1)

 

Toksicitet
Ingen giftvirkninger ved anbefalet dosering.

 

Dosering
Blade: Tørret droge: 3‑6 g tre gange daglig.(1) Unge, friske blade kan tilsættes salat.

Frisk juice 5‑10 ml tre gange daglig.(1)

Ekstrakt (1:2) i 25% alkohol: 15‑40 ml ugentligt.(8)

Tinktur (1:5) i 45% alkohol: 30-100 ml ugentlig.

Rod: Ekstrakt (1:2) i 25% alkohol: 30-60 ml ugentligt.(8)

 

Kombinationsforslag

Urtica arter blandes med Arctium lappa og Galium aparine i behandligen af eksem.

Urtica arter blandes med Galega officinalis for at stimulere mælkeproduktionen.

Urtica arter blandes med Withania somnifera i behandlingen af blodmangel og underernæring.

Urtica arter blandet med Taraxacum officinalis fremmer udskillelsen af urinsyrer.

Kan blandes med Serenoa serrulata i behandlingen af forstørret prostata.

 

Referencer
1. Bradley, P.R.(ed.), British Herbal Compendium, Vol.1, Dorset: BHMA. 1992, s. 166-167 2. Mills, S., The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine, Middlesex, England: Penguin Arkana, (1993), s. 498 3. Hirano, T. et al: Planta med. 60 (1994) 4. Schmidt, K.: Fortschr Med, 101 (15):713-16 (1983) 5. Belaiche, P & LIevoux, O.: Phytother Res, 5:267-9 (1991) 6. Romics, I.: Int Urol Nephrol, 19 (3): 293-7, (1987) 7. Barsom, S. & Bettermann, A. A.: ZFA (Stuttgard), 55 (33):1947

 

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