Hvem er mest i risiko for immun-underskud

Immunforsvar

 

Af Eva Lydeking

Fra vi bliver født, møder vi allehånde mikroorganismer, hvis eneste livsformål er at vokse og formere sig i et varmt, venligt og fugtigt miljø. Mikroorganismer kan være både bakterier, svampe, virus og parasitter. Man kan dele dem ind i dem, der

  • er sygdomsfremkaldende hos de fleste mennesker (egentlige patogene mikroorganismer), og det er dem, sundhedsvæsenet undersøger for, når mennesker henvender sig med symptomer på en infektion.
  • ”sædvanligvis er fredelige beboere” i kroppen, og som hverken gør særlig gavn eller skade, men som kan overvokse og blive symptomfremkaldende, hvis betingelserne er gunstige, de opportunistiske mikroorganismer.
  • er venlige mikroorganismer, som samarbejder med eller fremmer/ forstærker vores normale og gunstige fysiologiske processer, funktioner, immunitet, fordøjelse, humør, hjernefunktion m.m.


Ethvert samspil med mikroorganismer er en balance mellem mikroorganismernes aggressivitet og undvigemanøvrer i forhold til immunsystemet og værtens samlede immunkompetence, herunder hvor godt vi tåler det slagsmål, den inflammation, som immunsystemet iværksætter ved en infektion.

Immunsystemet er veludstyret med sin 3-trins-funktions-raket og meget kompetent til at klare verdens udfordringer, hvis vi vel at mærke sørger for de næringsstoffer, der skal bruges til at indgå i og styre de utallige processer; med D-vitamin, zink, selen og jern sammen med C-vitamin på topscorerlisterne.

Ud over næringsstofferne er der utallige sekundære plantestoffer, diverse små peptider fra maden og aktive molekyler fra venlige bakterier.

  

PeptinX Immun fra Engholm NDS

Immunsystemets 3-trins-raketFor at overkomme (potentielt) skadelige mikroorganismer er vi udstyret med barrierer:

Hud og slimhinder med forsvarsstoffer som IgA og en række celler, der hurtigt kan reagere i tilfælde af indtrængen af fremmede organismer eller stoffer.

Det medfødte immunsystem (det innate) slår til hurtigt, hårdt og effektivt med oxidativ stress, inflammation og masser af frie radikaler og symptomer. Det er især neutrofile granulocytter, makrofager, naturlige dræberceller sammen med en række cytokiner, der klarer denne del af processen.

Immunsystemet har også en ”skru-ned”-mekanisme, så når kroppen har klaret problemet, kan det afsluttes, eventuelle skader repareres, og forløbet lægges i hukommelseslageret til næste gang. Den proces er er også afhængig af makrofager.

Det tillærte/adaptive immunsystem reagerer langsommere, men mere specifikt, med både aktivering af specifikke T celler og antistofproducerende B-celler samt langtidshukommelsesceller af begge slags.

PeptinX Immun er et kombinationsprodukt, som forener to principper til at støtte og optimere normale funktioner, både som daglig forebyggelse og ved at understøtte ved særlige udfordringer som infektioner og vaccinationer.

  1. Kollagenrige væv er blevet tiltagende anerkendt for deres rolle i immunsystemet.
    Kontrollerede kliniske undersøgelser på mennesker bekræfter, at Bioaktive CollagenPeptider vedligeholder optimalt helbred i huden, cellerne mellem organerne og knoglerne/knoglemarven, herunder de celler, som er immunregulerende.
  2. Varmebehandlet Lactobacillus Paracasei-stamme, som har immunogen effekt, dvs. mere immundirigerende end sædvanlige probiotika.


Når immunsystemet iværksætter et normalt og effektivt respons, er der (altid) involveret et element af inflammation, men denne falder normalt hurtigt til ro, hvis det innate forsvar, herunder makrofagerne og fibroblastcellerne afblæser kampen i tide. Hvis immunresponset derimod er for voldsomt eller for langvarigt, kan der opstå kronisk inflammation og decideret vævsskade. I disse situationer er det nødvendigt med redskaber til at modificere responset.


Probiotika
er levende mikroorganismer, som, administreret i de rette mængder, giver en sundhedsmæssig fordel til værtsorganismen

Immunogene substanser er specifikke effektor-molekyler/celle-overflade-stoffer fra probiotikastammer. Disse molekyler samarbejder med værtsorganismen om at støtte immunforsvaret i ønsket retning.

Immunsystemet gennem livet
Immunsystemets respons i forhold til verdens udfordringer i form af mikroorganismer afhænger først og fremmest af, om det innate system kan eliminere en given infektionssituation. Hvis ikke det er tilstrækkeligt, træder det specifikke system til (T- og B-lymfocytternes forskellige funktioner), og her er det afgørende, om man har mødt infektionen/mikroorganismen før.

Børn

Babyers og børns immunsystem er stadig under udvikling, men relativt umodent, og derfor får småbørn tit høj feber som udtryk for, at det innate forsvar bakser med noget og øver sig i at håndtere mikroorganismerne.
Det er almindeligt med op til fem til seks forkølelser pr. år – et tal, som falder til to til tre forkølelser årligt hos 10-14-årige. Drenge er mere følsomme som små, senere bytter kønnene plads. Globalt er jern, zink, samt A- og D-vitamin de hyppigste underskud hos børn, især hos de ”småtspisende kræsne”.

Teenagere og yngre voksne

Immunologisk modenhed opnås sædvanligvis i teenagealderen, og yngre voksne er normalt immunologisk kompetente i forhold til udfordringer, men dog kan livsstils-vildskab tappe kroppen for de (mikro)-næringsstoffer, som immunkompetencen afhænger af. Vær igen opmærksom på D-vitamin, B12 og jern hos vegetarer og veganere samt effekten af stress, manglende søvn, manglende dagslys, døgnrytme og alkohol.
Samt folat, zink, jern og selen hos gruppen som helhed.


Ældre

Ældre har hele livets udsættelse for immunologisk aktive substanser (dvs. en lang immunologisk hukommelse) og ligeledes ofte ”ophobninger” af ernæringsmæssig stress, oxidativ stress og inflammationsmønstre, der skubber i den gale retning hvad angår immunkompetence.

Med stigende levealder er det muligt, at de specifikke T-celler simpelthen når en grænse for deres formåen, ligesom B-cellernes antistofdannelse kan aftage og miste effektivitet. Dermed bliver ny-infektioner mere risikable hos ældre.
Data fra Europa viser, at der er for lave kostindtagelser af de fleste mikronutrienter hos ældre, både dem, der bor hjemme, og dem, der er på institution. Særligt D-vitamin, E-vitamin, K2, folat, B12, jern, zink, selen.

Egendannelsen af antioxidanter går ned med alderen, ligesom D-vitamin-dannelsen i huden nedsættes betydeligt, så disse stoffer skal tilføres med kost og tilskud.

 

Hvordan bruges PeptinX Immun?

Fordi Lactobacillus-stammen er varmebehandlet og således virker immunogent, men ikke som en levende probiotikastamme, kan PeptinX Immun bruges både koldt og varmt. Pulveret er smagsneutralt og kan opløses i kolde og varme drikke, suppe, fryses i ispinde til børn, hældes i smoothies eller drysses på grød eller endda i te/kaffe til voksne/ældre.

PeptinX Immun kan bruges til alle aldre fra seks måneder, men er særligt egnet til (småt)ensidigt-spisende børn og ældre, fx i stressede situationer, i vinterhalvåret samt ved rekonvalescens.

Ingredienserne i PeptinX Immun er kontrolleret for både toksin- og mikrobiologisk forurening, og der er ingen GMO-processer involveret.

Engholm NDS har desuden en velsmagende og ultraletoptagelig vitaminmineral-drik ImmunoX, som er egnet som hjælp til immunsystemet, og en nyudviklet olivenbladsekstrakt, ImmuBalance.

Referencer:

Gombart, Adrian F.; Pierre, Adeline; Maggini, Silvia. 2020. “A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System–Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection” Nutrients 12, no. 1: 236. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010236

Silvia Maggini, Adeline Pierre, Philip C CalderImmune Function and Micronutrient Requirements Change over the Life Course October 2018, Nutrients 10(10):1531, DOI: 10.3390/nu10101531

Wendy T Watford, Masato Moriguchi, Akio Morinobu, John J O’Shea, The biology of IL-12: coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses,

Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 5, 2003, Pages 361-368, ISSN 1359-6101, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00043-1

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